Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common disease among infants and children. UTI might affect the lower urinary tract (cystitis) or the upper urinary tract (acute pyelonephritis). Acute pyelonephritis is the most severe and dangerous
form of UTI. Delay in diagnosis and treatment may results in renal scar and chronic renal failure. The prevalence of renal scar formation following acute pyelonephritis is reported as high as 10%-65%.